Tag Archives: Ivy Hughes

Lessons from Germany’s Ruhr District, Part 2

Rust Wire correspondent Ivy Hughes recently visited Germany’s Ruhr District, a northwestern part of the country recovering from the loss of jobs in of the steel and coal industry. The district includes 53 cites and more than 5.3 million residents. The region is a 2010 European Capital of Culture, an annul EU designation awarded to a city or region for the purpose of showcasing its cultural development. As such, the municipalities within the Ruhr District worked within a €62.5 million budget to create 300 projects and 2,500 events highlighting its cultural assets and efforts to reconstruct an economy devastated by the demise a prominent industrial sector. This three-part series highlights some of the structural, economic and cultural changes a region similar to the Rust Belt in terms of industrial and economic collapse is making to facilitate economic diversification. Her trip was made possible through the Ecologic Institute and sponsored by the German Federal Foreign Office through the Transatlantic Climate Bridge. Read Part One of her series here.

Part Two: Alternating Alternative Models

Green. It’s no longer a color or even a buzzword; it’s criteria for tax credits and the genesis of a lifestyle. It’s also an industry, one aging manufacturing regions are relying on for economic recovery.

It took the desecration of Michigan’s prevailing economic driver (autos) and the Ruhr district’s (steel and coal) for the regions to recognize the impossibly of expecting one or two industries to be the economic panacea for an entire region or state. Today, both regions are diversifying economic portfolios rooted in alternative energy.

Michigan is handing incentives to alternative energy companies, persuading them to fill empty industrial facilities and hire unemployed, skilled manufacturing talent. The state has had some success, but replacing one industry with another without creating a pipeline for talent or new enterprise, could propel Michigan into a solar powered unemployment hike.

Michigan has some effective business incubators, but they lack continuity particularly as it relates to fueling the alternative energy sector. Incubator tenants have access to resources and cheap workspace but when they expand outside of the incubator, they are, in a manner of speaking, on their own.

The Science Park in Gelsenkirchen, Germany is the most comprehensive example of incubation that I’ve seen because it was developed as a cyclical, rather than a linear, business model. Everything in the park and the surrounding area   — landscape, structures, housing stock, education, talent and industry — move together. The park and Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (FhG ISE) churn talent and support business; alternative energy businesses power the park; and new companies use the park to test new products.

The Science Park sits on the former 5.4 million square foot Rheinelbe coal mine in southern Gelsenkirchen. The coal mine opened in 1929 and closed in 1984. In 1989, plans were laid to turn the area into a hotbed for alternative energy enterprise and research.

Thanks to a €44 million investment, the Science Center opened in 1995. Several energy-based companies moved into the park and in 1996, construction of what would be one of the world’s largest roof top solar fields, began on Science Center. During its 30-year life expectancy, the field is expected to prevent the emission of 4,500 tons of carbon dioxide.

The Science Park is aesthetically appealing — it looks out onto a lake and recreational space divided by a 300-meter glass lift, it’s located on contaminated industrial property, and includes a biomass park — but it works because it’s the nucleus of something much greater.

The Science Park is part of International Building Exhibition Emscher Park (IBA) Emscher Park Project, a 10-year regional plan to implement 120 alternative energy-based projects in 17 cities with a population of approximately 2 million people. The Science Park is surrounded by former industrial neighborhoods turned into solar villages; a solar power plant developed on former ore and coalbunkers; alternative energy companies; a biomass park; the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (FhG ISE) as a lab; and R&D space. It’s an alternative energy Petri dish.

Michigan is working on something similar….sort of. Renovation of the approximately 4.7 million square foot former Ford Wixom Assembly Plant is the state’s first full scale push for an alternative energy park. The three alternative companies committed to the “Ford Renewable Energy Park” — Xtreme Power, Clairvoyant Energy and Oerlikon Solar — are expected to start producing photovoltaic panels, advanced battery storage technologies and other renewable energy components by 2012.

A “regional center for jobs training and education” is planned for the complex as is some model to bring spin-offs to market, making the “Ford Renewable Energy Park” the state’s most ambitious attempt at creating a genuine alternative energy incubator. Not surprisingly, funding is an issue. The companies are waiting on additional funding for the approximately $725 million renovation.

Completion of the complex would be a huge feat for Michigan but it’s hard to imagine the Ford Renewable Energy Park impacting the Detroit Tri-Country region like the Science Park did the 17 cities included in the Emscher Park Project.

Approximately four million people live in the Detroit Tri-County area, which includes 200 cities and towns. It’s difficult to conceptualize even half of the Detroit Tri-County population (2 million people) and half of its municipalities (100) coalescing to develop a 10-year plan to foster the region’s alternative energy sector. Michigan is one of the most politically and racial divisive regions of the country and, obviously, economics is a major issue.

However, resident-driven cultural, economic, environmental and development projects are popping up all over the state and the groups pulling these projects together, are much more adept at collaboration than the spider web of Michigan’s political factions, business groups and unions.

But the state has to start somewhere and no one knows where alternative energy is headed. Michigan is assessing its assets and is taking a risk on the Ford Renewable Energy Park and for a state with one of the country’s highest unemployment rates, that’s something.

-Ivy Hughes

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Lessons from Germany’s Ruhr District, Part 1

Rust Wire correspondent Ivy Hughes recently visited Germany’s Ruhr District, a northwestern part of the country recovering from the loss of jobs in of the steel and coal industry. The district includes 53 cites and more than 5.3 million residents. The region is a 2010 European Capital of Culture, an annul EU designation awarded to a city or region for the purpose of showcasing its cultural development. As such, the municipalities within the Ruhr District worked within a €62.5 million budget to create 300 projects and 2,500 events highlighting its cultural assets and efforts to reconstruct an economy devastated by the demise a prominent industrial sector. This three-part series highlights some of the structural, economic and cultural changes a region similar to the Rust Belt in terms of industrial and economic collapse is making to facilitate economic diversification. Her trip was made possible through the Ecologic Institute and sponsored by the German Federal Foreign Office through the Transatlantic Climate Bridge.


Part One: Transforming Industry

Exchanging vows, eating dinner and ice-skating on one of the thousand abandon manufacturing sites in Michigan is an imaginative stretch at best, but it’s an idea and if the Rust Belt needs anything, it’s vision and money.

Michigan has 20,000 abandoned commercial buildings that will remain empty, meet a wrecking ball, or be repurposed for alternative energy, healthcare, film or biotech businesses. Even though some will be repurposed, it’s impractical to suggest emerging industries have the capacity to reinvigorate even one-third of these sites, some of which include millions of acres of contaminated space.

So if industry can’t take it, the wrecking balls are worn out and vacancies red flag potential investors, what else can the state do with the 60,000 square feet to more than 5 million square foot sites?

The state can examine how other regions facing similar challenges have innovated and progressed.

Germany’s Ruhr District is similar to Michigan in that it relied on blue-collar industry for economic stability. In 1960, 670,000 people worked in Ruhr District coalmines. Today, that number sits at about 35,000 but additional job loss is eminent. Three of the remaining six mines are set to close in the next six months, with a final shutdown expected by 2018.

Though Michigan hasn’t been dealing with large-scale job loss for quite as long, the last 10 years have been extremely difficult. According to the American Manufacturing Trade Action Coalition, from 2000 to 2008, the state lost 315,000 manufacturing jobs.

Both regions are reeling from industry specific job loss, but differ greatly in terms of strategic planning, funding sources, government involvement and political cooperation. However, that doesn’t mean Michigan can’t borrow a few things from Germany, specifically as it relates to rehabilitation of abandoned manufacturing sites.

The City of Essen, Germany, the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the European Union committed to marrying historical preservation and innovation by turning the Zollverein Coal Mine, a 247-acre site with more than 80-structures, into an extraordinary culture center.

The Zollverein Coal Mine was founded in 1847. When it closed in 1986, the North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) governmental entity, bought the property and memorialized one of the shafts, setting the site up for preservation. In 1993, the cooking plant closed and was slated for sale to China. The deal fell through and rather than demolishing the cooking plant, the NRW pegged it as a future exhibition site.

By 2008, the European Union (36 percent), the City of Essen (2 percent), Germany (6 percent) and the NRW (56 percent) invested approximately €165 million to rehabilitate the site.*

Today, the grisly, iconic structures include a restaurant, museum, outdoor ice rink, café, lecture space, lavish art museum, office space, indoor and outdoor space used for performance art, weddings and other cultural events and outdoor recreational areas, many of which were developed on mine-refuse heaps.

The site is a cultural destination attracting more than one million visitors a year and is listed as a United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Grangerization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site.

The sheer amount of collaboration involved in preserving such a site is mind boggling, but the way in which developers created cultural cohesion without duplication is striking. Though municipal collaboration in Michigan is improving, it is, at this point, fantastical to believe enough units of government would sideline hubris long enough to plan a project of this magnitude.

The closest thing Michigan has to a manufacturing-site-turned-cultural-center is the old General Motors Centerpoint business campus in Pontiac. Raleigh Michigan Studios purchased the property in 2009 after the state passed ambitious film tax credit legislation. Raleigh Michigan Studios plans to create a 200,000 square foot sound stage for TV and movie production on the site, which is good news for Michigan, but far from a cultural center.

Unlike Germany, Michigan isn’t being tapped to carry the economic weight of failing governments and as such, the financial mechanisms needed for a project like the Zollverein Coal Mine are depressed. The feds are throwing some money at Michigan, but environmental contamination, municipal collaboration and vision quickly derail well-intentioned rehabilitation projects.

In Michigan as in the rest of the states, private sector funding is critical to substantial economic change. While some developers have looked into creating theme parks and/or wetlands on some of Michigan’s abandoned sites, a collision between ideas and the market haven’t occurred.

Though the Zollverein project has brought international attention to Essen, it’s unrealistic to assume a replication of the Zollverein rehabilitation would be economically viable on a similar site in the Ruhr region. The Zollverein has vacant offices spaces and it’s hard to imagine that the massive rooms set aside for cultural events — art, dance, performance — will ever fill, but it’s an idea.

*These are approximations compiled from multiple sources.

-Ivy Hughes

Top photo: Courtesy Zollverein coal mine, other photos by Ivy Hughes.

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Hatching Incubation in Mid-Michigan

Editor’s note: This piece comes from Michigan correspondent Ivy Hughes. -KG

Mid-Michigan doesn’t need economic indicators to validate the recent surge of entrepreneurial activity. In less than two years, four incubators have popped up giving business, technology, science and creative startups an opportunity to make money doing what they love.

Incubator is a loose term generally used to describe the capture of new talent, economic programs and business support in a physical structure. The greater Lansing area has four: The TIC, the Hatch, ITEC and the NEO Center. Between the four, approximately 45-60 jobs have been created.

Launched in 2008, East Lansing’s Technology Innovation Center (TIC) was the area’s first large scale incubation project. Leveraging an incentive allowing cities to capture local taxes for economic development projects, the City of East Lansing opened the TIC in the heart of the downtown business district across the street from Michigan State University (MSU).

“There’s not a lot of professional office space in the downtown area and we knew the university turned out a lot of intellection property within the area and we wanted them to have a space where they could test out their ideas,” said Jeff Smith, the City of East Lansing’s project manager of new economic initiatives.

The TIC (pictured above) is a 6,500 square foot loft-like space that can accommodate 16 offices an several smaller workstations. Tenants have access to common areas, conference rooms, a kitchen area and internet and phone services. TIC business owners love the low rent (the TIC charges an annual fee of $19.50 a square foot), and flexible lease schedules, but they also benefit from interacting with other entrepreneurs. It isn’t uncommon for TIC businesses to work together, exchange services or refer each other’s services to potential clients.

Of the 20 original TIC companies, 13 remain. Some of them closed and some moved back into home office space but two of them — Enliven Software and Gravity Works — outgrew the TIC, moving their businesses to larger spaces within the community.

“My guess is that between half and three quarters of the businesses will expand into additional space and the remaining portion will probably pull back on the reigns and work from home or existing office,” Smith said about future tenants.

By the beginning of 2011, the HATCH, a new 2,100 square foot student-based incubator, will open right next to the TIC, providing affordable space to undergraduate and graduate students that need a space to flush out business ideas.

The Hatch has room for 25 students that will $75 to $100 a month to use workstations and TIC conference rooms. They’ll also have Internet, a mailing address and, more importantly, access to professionals who will mentor the students and provide them with valuable services. MSU is using the Hatch as a portal for MSU ENet, an entrepreneurship certificate program designed to connect area entrepreneurs to university talent.

While the TIC tends to attract technology-based businesses, the Lansing-based NEO Center seeks to help creatives, those interested in starting marketing media, media technology and art-based businesses. The NEO Center is in its infancy. It’s located behind Art Alley, an new art gallery that could be a portal for NEO Center artists.

The actual center isn’t quite ready for tenants. When it is, it will include six to 10 studios and several workspaces for 25 to 30 “hobby artists,” individuals that don’t need a studio, but want access to equipment and a creative community. Before that happens, NEO Center founders need to raise $50,000 to $60,000 to build out the studio space, a goal NEO Center President Thomas Stewart hopes to achieve in six-to-nine months.

“The idea, in part, is to build accessibility and space for artists so they can showcase their art,” Stewart said. “The more opportunity artists have in Lansing to showcase their art, the more diverse our culture becomes.”

Funding is always a challenge for start-ups fostering start-ups. Not only do these incubators need funding, they need tenants, which means keeping rents low. Despite the tax capture, the City of East Lansing had to used a bond to help fund the TIC. All in, the TIC cost about $400,000 to launch.

“I would recommend having a virtual tenant program as well,” Smith said. “It’s added revenue for the program without necessarily losing space to standard tenants. Virtual tenants pay a flat monthly fee for a mailing address, access to the conference rooms and other things not traditionally found in an office space.”

From a fiscal standpoint the community warmed to the Hatch more quickly than the TIC, partially because the TIC’s success assuaged some concern among investing and partially because the Hatch is directly linked to MSU. The university offered $90,000 for the build out and an area economic development group, LEAP, contributed $12,000.

“There’s a couple of reasons for added investment,” said Eric Jorgenson, an MSU senior, member of the Hatch team and owner of GoBoo Clothing. “There’s an element of youth to it and there’s a lot of potential in student entrepreneurs. It’s not more innovation, but a different kind of innovation that comes out of people who are 18 to 23-years old.”

The NEO Center approached funding differently, leveraging aspects of the non-profit and for profit world by filing as a low-profit limited liability company (L3C). Designed to encourage socially beneficial enterprises, L3Cs generate moderate revenue but can receive grant funding from non-profits.

Incubators need funding to get off the ground and flexibility to survive. The City of Lansing listened to entrepreneurs and tweaked the proposed 9 to 5 operating hours for the TIC and the Hatch, opting to give tenants 24-hour access to the building. The city also changed its leaves requirements. Initially TIC, tenants were required to sign a year lease with the understanding that after three years, they would move into another space. Now tenants can lease space beyond the initial three-year threshold. Smith said the new agreement is more accommodating to TIC tenants and will hopefully help the businesses stay in the area.

Smith suggests that other cities interested in creating incubators include a provision in the lease to protect against broken commitments. Before the TIC opened, the anchor tenant backed out, sticking the city with a substantial lease agreement. If the lease had required the potential tenant to pay a year’s rent upon signing, the city wouldn’t have had to scramble for a new anchor.

Despite the challenge, the city opened the TIC and soon signed a more fitting anchor tenant — MSU Technologies.

“It turned out well,” Smith said. “The worst absolute fiasco turned out to be the best absolute fiasco for everything.”

Mid-Michigan’s incubator culture is expanding. The City of East Lansing is working on creating a restaurant incubator and several entities are trying to launch wet labs.

The existing incubators are for college students and professionals but the region certainly isn’t ignoring young talent. ITEC is a Lansing-based incubator for middle schoolers. It started as a physical space, but like other Mid-Michigan incubators, ITEC changed to accommodate its demographic.

“We found that even though we were in a neighborhood in an old school, we needed to be in the schools,” said itec Executive Director Kirk Riley. “The transportation cost for the kids was just too great.”

ITEC organizers spend roughly three days a week in Lansing schools where the enhance the students’ STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) skills by engaging them in fun STEM projects that include robots and video games. ITEC recently received $600,000 in program funding, a huge boost for the organization.

“We are a talent incubator for the next generation,” Riley said. “We are creating the next generation of entrepreneurs because a lot of entrepreneurs come out of the science, engineering and technology areas. What itec is really about is academic success and career success.”

-Ivy Hughes

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From Colorado to Michigan

Editor’s note: This piece was contributed by Ivy Hughes, a Lansing, Mich.- based journalist. Read more about her on our contributors page. -KG

Five years ago my husband and I moved from Colorado to Michigan — by choice — for a job in the mortgage industry. We knew we were taking a huge risk, but at the time we had no idea we were venturing into a storm of opportunity we would have missed had we stayed in an economically thriving state.

Michigan is the underdog the media loves and the public, for varying reasons, hates. But how can a state most distinguished by its unemployment rate change course if its residents accuse new people, such as my husband and myself, and new ideas, of unforgivable naivety? Nearly every time I tell someone about my decision to swap states, they say, with unparalleled indignation and hopelessness: “Why would you ever move to Michigan?”

Moving to a state written off by everyone, including its residents, is wearing. My excitement about the move quickly dissipated and I feel into a rut of complaint and disaffection. But then I saw what many Michiganders no longer have the capacity or the desire to acknowledge: a tremendous undercurrent of energy. Outside of government, outside of the state’s old and dying entitlement structures lies a phenomenal strength in innovation and entrepreneurship.

During the last five years three technology incubators opened within five miles of my house; one of the most advanced superconducting cyclotron facilities in the world invested $550 million in Michigan State University (MSU); and Lansing became home to the world’s first building project to achieve double platinum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) designation. That’s to say nothing of the region’s existing successes, none of which are tied to the auto industry. Neogen, a publicly traded company that develops food safety and animal products, that produces more than $50 million in goods in Lansing every year, continues to add employees and increase both its regional and international presence. Liquid Web, a web hosting provider started years ago by a 17-year-old entrepreneur, made Inc. magazine’s 5,000 fastest growing companies in 2007 and recently opened a 90,000 square foot cloud computing center in Delta Township.

Lansing residents are well aware of these larger successes, but hundreds of small business owners from varying industries are fervently kicking down Michigan’s dilapidated wall of self-pity with successes of their own. Not one of these entrepreneurial endeavors is tied to the auto industry. Every single one of them is wrapped tightly in determination and held together by a sense of responsibility to create something cataclysmically transformative for Michigan. All of these ventures were started by entrepreneurs who saw potential in nothingness.

Some tag this energy Young Smart Global, a loose moniker that’s provided a networking resource for some of Lansing’s most innovative thinkers, but it’s more than a label, it’s a movement.

In less than a year, this movement has helped launch the Hatch, which provides enterprising MSU students incubation space and access to established local talent. Three Hatch graduates recently launched Spartanicity, a company that delivers food, books and other goods to dorm rooms. These same entrepreneurs also created Spartan Solutions, a non-profit offering $1,000 tuition scholarships and $500 books scholarships to college and university students throughout the state. This energy has also created mentorship programs, connecting students to local entrepreneurs and their networks, an invaluable resource for those looking to launch after graduation.

So what?

Because the students are connecting with entrepreneurs, they’re graduating and starting businesses HERE instead of in Colorado, California or New York and in turn, these young entrepreneurs are revitalizing the old ones, shooting a cocktail of desire, rejuvenation and hunger into successful veins unconsciously nearing collapse. They’re changing minds.

I was excited to move to Michigan, but that feeling quickly drained. Not because the mortgage industry collapsed — we were surprising calm when it happened — but because the people here made me feel as if I’d moved to the last place on earth, the one scorpions flick their tails upon.

At first we failed. We started and abandoned business ventures that didn’t work. After having a thriving career in Colorado, I worked as a waitress at a sports bar where I played the roll of old, objectified hag (I was in my early 20s). My husband was unemployed for several months. We failed again and again and so has Michigan. But it’s not that we have failed; it’s what we’ve done with those failures. I own a company and have more opportunities, I believe, than I would have had in Colorado. There’s less of a market to penetrate and in an environment where journalism jobs are as contagious as polio, I’m a successful working freelance journalist. My husband has created a niche within his own industry that he likely wouldn’t have been able to create in Colorado.

We created these opportunities ourselves and other young, enterprising people are doing the same.

Yeah, failure sucks. Michigan winters suck. Coming from Colorado, the lack of sunshine here is debilitating. It’s challenging, but so is life.

My question to Michigan natives is, “If you hate this state so much, why don’t you leave? And if you stay, why wait for a door to open when you have the opportunity to build the house?”

-Ivy Hughes

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